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Komponen Sistem Imun - KOMPAS.com

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Kamis, 11 Februari 2016
Selamat Datang   |      |  
KOMPAS
Komponen Sistem Imun
Senin, 22 Februari 2010 | 10:19 WIB
GETTY IMAGES/ BETSIE VAN DER MEER
Ilustrasi
TERKAIT:

KOMPAS.com - Secara garis besar, pembagian sistem imun menurut sel tubuh dibagi menjadi sistem imun humoral dan sistem imun seluler. Sistem imun humoral terdiri atas antibodi (Imunoglobulin yang disingkat Ig) dan sekret tubuh (saliva, air mata, serumen, keringat, asam lambung, pepsin, dll). Sedangkan sistem imun dalam bentuk seluler berupa makrofag, limfosit, neutrofil beredar di dalam tubuh kita.

Salah satu mekanisme pertahanan tubuh kita yang paling jelas adalah kulit kita, karena ia merupakan pembatas antara kuman dan tubuh dan biasanya tidak dapat ditembus oleh bakteri dan virus. Kulit juga mengeluarkan sekret antibakteri yang bisa mematikan jamur dan bakteri yang menempel di kulit.

Jangan lupa bahwa hidung, mulut dan mata merupakan tempat masuk kuman juga, air mata dan air liur mengandung enzim yang disebut lisozim yang bisa menghancurkan dinding bakteri.

Selain itu tubuh kita mempunyai banyak sekali mekanisme pertahanan yang terdiri dari berbagai macam komponen mayor sistem imun yaitu organ limfoid (thymus, lien, sumsum tulang) beserta sistem limfatiknya.

Bahkan, organ tubuh kita pun termasuk mekanisme pertahanan tubuh kita yaitu jantung, hati, ginjal dan paru-paru. Mungkin organ yang disebutkan itu pernah Anda dengar, tapi pernahkah mendengar mengenai organ yang bernama thymus? Organ ini terletak dekat dengan jantung dan sangat berperan penting dalam mekanisme imun tubuh kita.

Sistem limfatik merupakan mekanisme tubuh yang mungkin sebagian orang mengenal karena dokter sering memeriksa, biasanya berupa tonjolan kelenjar yang membesar dibandingkan pada umumnya. Ketika kelenjar limfe ini berperang melawan kuman yang masuk ke dalam tubuh, maka bisa terjadi pembengkakan kelenjar limfe ini.

Organ limfoid seperti thymus sendiri mempunyai tanggung jawab dalam pembentukan sel T dan penting bagi para bayi baru lahir, tanpa thymus, maka bayi baru lahir mempunyai sistem imun yang buruk. Leukosit atau juga disebut sel darah putih dihasilkan oleh thymus, lien dan sumsum tulang.

Leukosit bersirkulasi di dalam badan antara organ tubuh melalui pembuluh limfe dan pembuluh darah. Dengan begitu, sistem imun bekerja terkoordinasi baik memonitor tubuh dari kuman ataupun substansi lain yang bisa menyebabkan problem bagi tubuh.

Ada dua tipe lekosit pada umunya, yaitu fagosit yang bertugas memakan organisme yang masuk ke dalam tubuh dan limfosit yang bertugas mengingat dan mengenali yang masuk ke dalam tubuh serta membantu tubuh menghancurkan mereka.

Ada sel lainnya juga merupakan fagosit, salah satunya adalah netrofil, yang tugas utamanya melawan bakteri. Jika kadar netrofil meningkat, maka bisa jadi ada suatu infeksi bakteri di dalamnya.

Limfosit sendiri terdiri dari dua tipe yaitu limfosit B dan limfosit T. Limfosit dihasilkan oleh sumsum tulang, tinggal di dalamnya dan jika matang menjadi limfosit sel B, atau meninggalkan sumsum tulang ke kelenjar thymus dan menjadi limfosit sel T. Limfosit B dan T mempunyai fungsi yang berbeda dimana limfost B berfungsi untuk mencari target dan mengirimkan tentara untuk mengunci keberadaan mereka. Sedangkan sel T merupakan tentara yang bisa menghancurkan ketika sel B sudah mengidentifikasi keberadaan mereka.

dr.Intan Airlina Febiliawanti

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