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Wajib Suntik TT Sebelum Menikah - KOMPAS.com

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Sabtu, 6 Februari 2016
Selamat Datang   |      |  
KOMPAS
Wajib Suntik TT Sebelum Menikah
Senin, 2 November 2009 | 14:03 WIB
TPG IMAGES

KOMPAS.com - Di masa kini, pasangan yang hendak menikah sudah mulai akrab dengan premarital test atau tes kesehatan pranikah. Salah satu yang harus dipenuhi dan merupakan aturan wajib dari pemerintah adalah vaksin tetanus toksoid (TT).

Menikah perlu banyak persiapan. Yang terutama tentu kondisi kesehatan. Salah satu persiapan fisik bagi kaum perempuan yang berkaitan dengan administrasi adalah surat keterangan bebas tetanus toksoid (TT).

Surat sakti ini diperlukan untuk melengkapi berkas di Kantor Urusan Agama (KUA). Surat yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak berwenang dalam medis ini sudah menjadi aturan resmi pemerintah sejak tahun 1986. "Ini adalah program jangka panjang yang ditetapkan pemerintah untuk memberantas tetanus," kata Dr. Siti Salima, Sp.OG, ahli kandungan dari RS Pantai Indah Kapuk, Jakarta.

Meskipun suntikan IT pernah didapat di masa kecil, perempuan yang hendak menikah wajib mendapat vaksinasi TT lagi. Vaksin TT dianggap penting karena tetanus pernah jadi momok yang berakibat kematian bayi di Indonesia.

Di tahun 1980-an, tetanus menduduki peringkat teratas sebagai penyebab kematian bayi berusia di bawah satu bulan. Meskipun kini kasus serupa itu sudah menurun, ancamannya masih ada, sehingga perlu diwaspadai.

Dijelaskan Dr. Siti, tetanus yang menyerang bayi baru lahir, istilahnya tetanus neonatorum, disebabkan basil Clostridium tetani. Penyakit ini menular dan menimbulkan risiko kematian sangat tinggi, nyaris mencapai 100 persen!

"Vaksinasi tetanus pada perempuan yang hendak menikah akan meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh dari infeksi tetanus. Kekebalan tubuh itu akan 'diwariskan' kepada bayinya ketika proses persalinan. Jadi bayi yang baru lahir aman dari infeksi tetanus," paparnya.

Alat kebidanan tidak steril
Di negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, kasus tetanus pada bayi baru lahir masih sering ditemui. Menurut WHO, angka kematian akibat tetanus di negara berkembang 135 kali lebih besar daripada di negara maju. Dari jumlah itu, kasus tetanus pada bayi baru lahir angkanya sangat bermakna.

Kondisi ini dikarenakan tetanus terkait erat dengan masalah sanitasi dan kebersihan selama proses kelahiran. "Bisa jadi karena penggunaan alat kebidanan yang tidak steril, misal guntingnya kotor. Masih banyak proses kelahiran di Indonesia dilakukan oleh tenaga tidak terlatih dengan baik secara medis," ucap DR. Dr.Dwiana Ocvianty, Sp.OG(K), dari FKUI.

Infeksi tetanus tak hanya membahayakan nyawa bayi, tapi juga ibu. Karena itu, program vaksinasi TT ini terutama ditujukan bagi wanita di daerah pedesaan dan terpencil. "Sayangnya, belum semua perempuan mendapat vaksin TT sebelum menikah karena banyak pasangan yang menikah siri alias menikah secara agama saja. Jadi tidak tersaring oleh KUA," tuturnya.

Enam bulan sebelum menikah
Sebenarnya target pemberian vaksin TT ini bukan hanya wanita yang akan menikah, tapi juga wanita usia subur. Waktu yang tepat untuk mendapatkan vaksin TT sekitar dua hingga enam bulan sebelum pernikahan. "Ini diperlukan agar tubuh memiliki waktu untuk
membentuk antibodi," sebut Dr. Dwiana.

Sejak tahun 1989 WHO sudah menargetkan untuk membasmi tetanus di 161 negara berkembang. Hingga 1999, sudah 104 negara yang mencapai keberhasilan tersebut, meski infeksi tetanus masih jadi masalah di 57 negara berkembang lainnya. Dr. Dwiana menyarankan agar calon pengantin perempuan segera mendapatkan vaksinasi tetanus. "Tidak ada ruginya, kok. Lagipula, harganya tidak mahal," ucapnya.

Bagaimana dengan calon pengantin pria? Vaksin TT bisa diberikan pada pria dewasa untuk melindungi si pria dari bahaya tetanus, tak ada kaitannya dengan pencegahan infeksi tetanus pada bayi. (GHS/Michael)

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