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Penanganan Anak Hiperaktif - KOMPAS.com

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Sabtu, 13 Februari 2016
Selamat Datang   |      |  
KOMPAS
Penanganan Anak Hiperaktif
Senin, 27 Juli 2009 | 09:41 WIB

KOMPAS.com — Anak yang selalu bergerak dan sulit berkonsentrasi sering dicap sebagai anak nakal. Padahal, dalam dunia psikiatri, mereka dikenal sebagai attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Menurut National Institute of Mental Health di Amerika, perbandingan anak laki-laki dan anak perempuan dengan ADHD adalah 3:1.

Namun, beberapa ahli jiwa menganggap terdapat ADHD yang sama banyak antara anak perempuan dengan dan anak laki-laki. Hanya, anak perempuan tidak terdiagnosis sesering anak laki-laki karena anak perempuan kurang mengganggu dan gejalanya masih terkendali sampai usia lebih tua.

ADHD dapat menyebabkan gangguan kemampuan akademik dan interaksi sosial dengan teman. Ini karena anak ADHD tak mampu mengendalikan dan mengatur tingkah lakunya. Lebih parah lagi, penyalahgunaan alkohol dan obat, depresi dan gangguan mental lainnya, kenakalan remaja, serta problem dalam pekerjaan.

Kondisi hubungan relasi sosial yang buruk ini menimbulkan peningkatan kondisi stres pada orangtua. Bahkan, hal itu bisa mengakibatkan persepsi orangtua terhadap dirinya sendiri menjadi buruk dan merasa tak mampu berperan sebagai orangtua yang baik.

Penanganan ADHD harus melalui terapi komprehensif yang meliputi:

1. Terapi Farmakologi
Rencana pengobatan harus dibuat secara individual, tergantung gejala dan efeknya terhadap kehidupan sehari-hari. Penelitian jangka panjang menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi obat dan terapi lain memberi hasil paling baik.

Pengobatan diberikan bila gejala impulsivitas, agresivitas, dan hiperaktivitas cukup berat sehingga menyebabkan gangguan di sekolah, di rumah, atau hubungan dengan teman. Pengobatan bertujuan menghilangkan gejala dan sangat memudahkan terapi psikologis. Lamanya pengobatan tergantung ada atau tidaknya gejala yang ingin dihilangkan.

2. Terapi Perilaku
Terapi psikososial/perilaku, seperti pelatihan kemampuan sosial, dapat dianjurkan sebagai terapi awal bila gejala ADHD cukup ringan, diagnosis ADHD belum pasti, atau keluarga memilih terapi ini. Namun, untuk jangka panjangnya, terapi perilaku saja tidak cukup dalam menangani ADHD

3. Terapi Kombinasi
Inilah terapi yang diyakini terbaik karena dibarengi dengan makan obat, sedangkan terapi perilaku dapat membantu pengelolaan gejala-gejala ADHD dan mengurangi dampaknya pada anak.

Cara terbaik adalah bekerja sama dengan seorang terapis berpengalaman dalam masalah perilaku, lalu rajin berkonsultasi dengan dokter yang fokus menangani anak ADHD untuk memonitor perkembangan anak.

Terapi perilaku bermanfaat membentuk self control pada anak sehingga bila sudah terbentuk, dosis obatnya akan dikurangi secara bertahap sampai akhirnya anak tidak memerlukan lagi.

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