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Jangan Anggap Sepele Batuk Berdahak - KOMPAS.com

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Sabtu, 13 Februari 2016
Selamat Datang   |      |  
KOMPAS
Jangan Anggap Sepele Batuk Berdahak
Senin, 6 Juli 2009 | 09:41 WIB

Jakarta, Kompas.com — Serangan batuk berdahak yang berlangsung lama sering dianggap sepele oleh sebagian masyarakat. Padahal, kondisi itu merupakan salah satu gejala radang pada saluran napas atau bronkitis. Bila tidak segera diatasi, penderita bisa mengalami perburukan penyakit itu, bahkan mengganggu fungsi jantung.

”Kebiasaan merokok dan polusi udara meningkatkan risiko bronkitis kronik serta memicu kekambuhan penyakit itu,” kata dokter spesialis paru, Prof Hadiarto Mangunnegoro, dalam seminar bertema ”Bronkitis Kronik dan Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik (PPOK)”, Sabtu (4/7) di Rumah Sakit Asri, Jakarta.

Bronkitis akut timbul karena flu atau infeksi lain pada saluran napas dan membaik dalam beberapa hari atau minggu. Pada bronkitis kronik, terjadi iritasi atau radang menetap pada saluran napas sering terjadi akibat rokok dan sering kambuh. Bila makin parah, penyakit itu masuk dalam kelompok PPOK yang memerlukan pengobatan serius.

Pasien bronkitis mengalami gejala antara lain batuk berdahak, napas pendek, dan makin berat saat aktivitas, mengi, demam, serta rasa tidak nyaman di dada. ”Bronkitis kronik ditandai batuk memburuk pada pagi hari, infeksi saluran napas berulang, flu disertai peningkatan batuk berdahak selama lebih dari tiga bulan,” kata Hadiarto.

PPOK

Bila tidak segera diatasi, serangan bronkitis kronik akan sering berulang dan bertambah parah. Apalagi bila penderita adalah perokok. Paparan asap rokok, daya tahan tubuh yang rendah, sakit mag, dan paparan bahan-bahan iritan di tempat kerja meningkatkan risiko bronkitis dan kekambuhan penyakit itu hingga menjadi PPOK.

Pada penderita PPOK, gejala penyakit meningkat dan fungsi paru menurun. Kualitas hidup penderita juga turun.

”Penyakit paru obstruktif juga berkaitan dengan gagal jantung kanan yang berfungsi untuk memompa darah ke paru-paru,” kata ahli jantung dan penyakit dalam, Kasim Rasjidi, dari RS Asri.

Namun, kebanyakan pasien mengabaikan gejala ringan. Batuk berdahak dan sesak ringan dibiarkan bertahun-tahun. Kebanyakan penderita PPOK adalah perokok atau bekas perokok. Sebagian pasien hidup di rumah yang penuh asap berasal dari tungku dapur atau kompor, dan sebagian lagi hidup tahunan di tempat kerja yang berasap atau berdebu.

”Kalau gejala mulai timbul, lebih cepat ke dokter lebih baik dan lanjutkan berobat,” kata Hadiarto. Diagnosis bisa dilakukan dengan menggunakan spinometeri untuk memastikan adanya penyempitan saluran napas, menentukan beratnya penyakit, menilai efek obat, dan memantau hasil pengobatan. Dengan diagnosis yang akurat, pasien bisa mendapat pengobatan yang tepat.

Untuk memperlambat kerusakan paru, penderita harus berhenti merokok dan menghindari asap atau debu yang membuat sesak.

KOMPAS
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