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Pernikahan Dini, Bentuk Pelanggaran HAM - KOMPAS.com

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Selasa, 9 Februari 2016
Selamat Datang   |      |  
KOMPAS
Pernikahan Dini, Bentuk Pelanggaran HAM
Rabu, 28 Januari 2009 | 19:31 WIB

JAKARTA, RABU - Pernikahan dini telah menjadi persoalan krusial di masyarakat Indonesia. Pernikahan dini menyebabkan angka kematian ibu melahirkan meningkat secara signifikan. Demikian pula pernikahan dini berkorelasi positif dengan meningkatnya angka kehamilan yang tidak diinginkan, aborsi, perdagangan manusia, jumlah anak terlantar, meningkatnya angka perceraian dan pengangguran.

"Ringkasnya pernikahan dini merupakan bentuk pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, khususnya hak kesehatan reproduksi, dan yang paling penting pernikahan dini bertentangan dengan esensi ajaran agama yang intinya menghargai manusia dan kemanusiaan," ujar Ketua Umum Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace, Siti Musdah Mulia dalam diskusi bertema Pernikahan Dini di Bawah Umur dalam Perspektif Perlindungan Anak di Jakarta, Rabu (28/1).

Masalah pernikahan di bawah umur di Indonesia mendadak mengemuka akhir-akhir ini. Terutama setelah heboh pernikahan PC (43) dengan LU, seorang gadis yang ditengarai masih berusia di bawah umur (12 tahun). Kasus ini hanyalah satu kasus yang mengemuka dari ribuan kasus lainnya yang mengendap di bawah permukaan laksana gunung es.

Padahal, perkara nikah di bawah umur bukanlah sesuatu yang baru di Indonesia. Praktek ini sudah lama terjadi dengan begitu banyak pelaku. Tidak di kota besar tidak di pedalaman. Sebabnya-pun bervariasi, karena masalah ekonomi, rendahnya pendidikan, pemahaman budaya dan nilai-nilai agama tertentu, atau karena hamil terlebih dahulu. Ketua Umum Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak Seto Mulyadi menyatakan, selain menimbulkan masalah sosial, nikah di bawah umur bisa menimbulkan masalah hukum Positif.

Pasal 7 Undang-Undang No. 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan menyebutkan bahwa perkawinan hanya diizinkan jika pihak pria sudah mencapai umur 19 t ahun dan pihak wanita sudah mencapai umur 16 tahun. Namun penyimpangan terhadap batas usia tersebut dapat terjadi ketika ada dispensasi yang diberikan oleh pengadilan ataupun pejabat lain yang ditunjuk oleh kedua orang tua dari pihak pria maupun pihak wanita (Pasal 7 ayat 2).

Pada diskusi yang digelar oleh Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak tersebut Siti Musdah Mulia menawarkan solusi, yakni bagaimana mengubah budaya patriarkhat yang sudah sedemikian kuat berakar dalam tradisi dan norma-norma masyarakat menjadi budaya kesetaraan.  

Untuk mengubah budaya tersebut, Siti Musdah menawarkan solusi, yaitu membangun kesadaran bersama di masyarakat akan pentingnya penghargaan dan penghormatan terhadap manusia dan hak-hak asasi manusia, seperti hak dan kesehatan reproduksi, mensosialisasikan budaya kesetaraan dan keadilan gender sejak di rumah tangga melalui pola pengasuhan anak, serta di masyarakat melalui lembaga-lembaga pendidikan, baik formal maupun nonformal.

Selain itu, melakukan dekonstruksi terhadap interpretasi agama yang bias gender dan nilai-nilai patriarkhat. Menyebarluaskan interpretasi agama yang ramah perempuan, apresiatif dan akomodatif terhadap nilai-nilai kemanusiaan.

"Kita juga harus merevisi semua peraturan dan perundang-undangan yang tidak kondusif bagi upaya pencegahan dan perlindungan HAM, terutama menyangkut hak-hak reproduksi perempuan seperti UU Perkawinan, UU Ketenagakerjaan, UU Kesehatan dan UU Kependudukan," papar Siti Musdah Mulia.

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